Efecto citotóxico de iones metálicos
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Palabras clave

Brain
heavy metals
neurotoxicity Cerebro
metales pesados
neurotoxicidad

Cómo citar

Hernández-Baltazar, D. ., Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E., Pensado-Guevara, P. B., Barrientos-Bonilla , A. A., Varela-Castillo, G. Y., Nadella, R., Zavala-Flores, L. ., & Montejo-López, W. (2024). Efecto citotóxico de iones metálicos: Una breve revisión. UVserva, (16), 151–167. https://doi.org/10.25009/uvs.vi16.2933

Resumen

Los iones metálicos con actividad biológica como el cobalto, cobre, cromo, hierro y magnaneso participan en la nutrición, respiración, mantenimiento y comunicación celular. Otros iones como el arsénico, cadmio, mercurio y plomo, que si bien son importantes para la dinámica de suelos y ecosistemas, no son parte del mantenimiento de la homeostásis celular, por el contrario su acumulación exacerbada en el organismo puede favorecer alteraciones patofisiológicas. En los últimos años, la exposición a iones metálicos tóxicos ha ido en aumento debido a su consumo en alimentos, o por exposición ambiental u ocupacional, favoreciéndo patologías a nivel de sistema respiratorio, gastrointestinal, músculo esquelético y sistema nervioso. En órganos de la cavidad abdominal como el hígado y riñón, así como torácicos (pulmón y corazón), los efectos tóxicos son evidentes por la presencia de atrofia celular, edemas e inflamación. A nivel del Sistema Nervioso Central, la neurotoxicidad inducida por iones metálicos se caracteriza por estrés celular exacerbado, neurodegeneración y neuroinflamación. La falla órganica sistémica en combinanción con daño neuronal podría generar disfunción metabólica asociada a desregulación en la síntesis y liberación de neurotransmisores, lo cual podría derivar en alteraciones cognitivas y motoras. En este artículo presentamos una breve revisión del impacto de iones metálicos como el cobalto, cobre, cromo y hierro en la supervivencia celular; y en contraste, el efecto citotóxico del arsénico, cadmio, mercurio y plomo; asimismo, las estrategias usadas para la detección de intoxicación mediante análisis clínico y métodos espectroscópicos o de genómica usados en investigación científica.

 

Cytotoxic effect of metal ions: A brief review

Metal ions such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron and manganese are involved in nutrition, respiration, maintenance and cell communication. However, heavy metal such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, which are key for soil dynamics, are not necessary to maintain homeostasis. On the contrary, exacerbated levels of heavy metals in cells induce morphophysiological alterations. Till date, exposure to metal ions has been increasing due to their consumption in junk food; due to environmental or occupational exposure favoring respiratory, gastrointestinal, skeletal muscle and neurological diseases. In peritoneal organs such as the liver and kidney, or thoracic organs for example in lung and heart, the toxic effects are evident by the presence of cell atrophy, edema and inflammation. At the central nervous system level, metal ion-induced neurotoxicity is characterized by increased cellular stress, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. The combination of systemic organ failure and neuronal damage might lead to metabolic dysfunction and deregulation in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters, which could further generate cognitive and motor alterations. In this article, we, for the first time present a brief review of the impact of metal ions, such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, as key agents for cell survival. In contrast, the cytotoxic effect of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead; furthermore, the strategies used for the metal ions-based intoxication detection by clinical analysis or new methods used in scientific research.

https://doi.org/10.25009/uvs.vi16.2933
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Derechos de autor 2023 Daniel Hernández-Baltazar, Dr. Eduardo Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Mta. Paola Belem Pensado-Guevara, Dra. Abril Alondra Barrientos-Bonilla , M en C. Guerson Yael Varela Castillo, Dra. Rasajna Nadella, Dra. Laura Mireya Zavala-Flores, Dr. Wilber Montejo-López